*Abbreviations under the "Available" column: A = Available // NA = Not Available // R = Previously Registered // WL = Currently on the Wait List

Native Americans in a European-Based Society

Each of six classes will deal with a different aspect of American history. Each section will dwell on activities of the era, reenactments, and the indigenous consequences of European contact. April 21: From where did the Indians originate? The consequences of the Doctrine of Discovery on how the Indian territory was occupied; Jefferson’s expansionist efforts; Lewis and Clark Expedition; continuing effects on Indians today will be addressed. April 28: Indian removal including the Trail of Tears and North West (Ohio) Indian equivalent will be discussed. May 5: Development of the Oregon/California Trail and its influence on our western occupation will be our focus. May 12: The Bozeman Trail; treaties broken and Red Cloud’s success against the US Army in Wyoming in the 1860s up to the Little Big Horn battle in 1876. We will join a wagon train. May 19: The death of Sitting Bull in 1890 and his bands joining Big Foot’s bands leading to Wounded Knee; the people involved and consequences for the indigenous peoples’ situation up to today. You will ride with me on the 300-mile reenactment. May 26: Oxen were the primary farm and transportation power source from the Spanish arrival to the mid 1800s. Ox power played a huge role in our occupation of North America. We will explore their training their contribution and, weather permitting, will bring a team to the class for a demonstration.

Instructor Bio:

Bill Speiden is a retired dairy farmer who reenacts historical events as his avocation. He has interpreted 1776 (Appalachia) and the Oregon Trail (1849) with his oxen at dozens of functions for over 40 years. He has reenacted historical trails in Wyoming, Montana, and Idaho. He has ridden with the Lakota in South Dakota, commemorating Big Foot’s December 1890 ride to Wounded Knee, and has participated in horse pack trips with the Navajo’s in Arizona. During the Lewis and Clark Corps of Discovery 200th anniversary, he wrote a “This Week with Lewis and Clark” series appearing in five area newspapers. Bill has written numerous articles on history and oxen for Rural Heritage and various Oregon Trail publications.

Recommended Reading:

Ambrose, Stephen. Undaunted Courage: Meriwether Lewis, Thomas Jefferson, and the Opening of the American West, 1997. Tate, Michael. Indians and Emigrants: Encounters on the Overland Trails, 2014. Ronda, James P. Lewis and Clark among the Indians, 2002. Jefferson, Thomas. “Aborigines.” Chap. 11 in Notes on the State of Virginia (1787), 2011.

Course Number Instructor Dates Day Time Location Available
B41 Bill Speiden Apr 21, 28, May 5, 12, 19, 26 Fr 11:00 a.m.-12:30 p.m. Meadows Presbyterian Church WL

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